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25 June 2010, Volume 46 Issue 6
Changes of the Soil Physical Properties in Hydro-Fluctuation Belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir
Kang Yi;Guo Quanshui;Cheng Ruimei;Hong Ming;Jin Jiangqun;Wang Xiangfu
2010, 46(6):  1-5.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100601
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In order to understand any influence of water level fluctuating on the soil physical properties in hydro-fluctuation belt of the three gorges reservoir.fixed-location monitoring was made for two years.The results showed that after two years with the water level fluctuating,the bulk density increased by 0.7%-4.6% and total porosity,capillary porosity,non-capillary respectively decreased by 0.2%-7.5%,0.6%-4.0%,32%-60.8% and the maximum moisture capacity,capillary moisture capacity and field capacity respectively decreased by 0.6%-15.1%,0.7%-11.9%,0.3%-12.5%.The soil physical properties obviously varied,but the differences were not significant (P>0.05).After the water level fluctuating for three years,the bulk density increased by 7%-17% in comparison with the non-submerged zones,the total porosity decreased by 18%-21%,the capillary porosity decreased by 11.3%-24.3%,the non-capillary porosity decreased by 35%-53%,the maximum moisture capacity decreased by 28%-31%,the capillary moisture capacity decreased by 26%-31%,and the field capacity decreased by 26%-32%.There were significant (P<0.05) differences in the soil physical indicators between the non-submerged zones and the submerged zones in each soli layer.

Homogeneity Index of Stand Spatial Structure of Mangrove Ecological System
Li Jianjun;Li Jiping;Liu Suqing;Zhang Hongwei;Feng Xianglan
2010, 46(6):  6-14.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100602
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Based on the research of natural forest spatial structure in China and abroad,and combined with the theory of landscape ecology,this paper proposed the homogeneity target optimizing the forest stand spatial structure of mangrove,and the new concept of homogeneity index.Parameters affecting the forest stand spatial structure homogeneity were formatted into multiple-objectives parameters.We also put forward the definition and the quantifying formula of homogeneity index.GRA(grey relation analysis) was for the first time used to analyze relationship between forest homogeneity index and factors,which were derived a set of survey data,influencing mangrove forest stand spatial structure in different tidal zones in Mangrove Nation Natural Reserve at Zhanjiang,Guangdong.The case study indicated that the relationship and priority order between influencing factors and homogeneity index are:competition index 0.716>mingling 0.686>spatial density index 0.670>Purpose tree species characteristic index 0.644>neighborhood pattern 0.638> neighborhood comparison 0.616> Health index 0.607.The forest homogeneity index can objectively reflect mangrove's influences on forest stand homogeneity,and this study provided a theoretical basis for establishing an optimized model of forest spatial structure in mangrove ecological systems.

Carbon Density,Carbon Stock and Carbon Sequestration in Alnus cremastogyne Plantation
Wen Shizhi;Tian Dalun;Yang Lili;Fang Xi;
2010, 46(6):  15-21.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100603
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Carbon density,carbon stock and sequestration was made in <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> plantation ecosystem.The result shows that the arithmetic average carbon density of different organs was 478.8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> for the 5-year-old plantation,485.7 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> for the 8-year-old stand and 495.8 g·kg<sup>-1</sup> for the 14-year-old plantation,and the variation coefficient ranged form 0.25% to 9.58%.The carbon densities of different organs varied in the following order:stems>branches>leaves>roots>bark.No obvious trends were detected for the carbon densities in different groups of under-storey of plants or the duff layer as the forest aged.The soil carbon density increased along with the stands aged and declined with the soil depth in the different age classes <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> plantation.The carbon storage in different oranges was positively related to the biomass of corresponding organs.Superiority of carbon storage in the trees gradually strengthens as the forest stands aged,carbon storage of the trees had gone up from 25.88 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> for the 5-year-old to 49.63 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> for the 14-year-old plantation.The carbon stock of <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> plantation ecosystem was mainly consisted of three sections,that was the trees,the litter and the soil,<i>cremastogyne</i> plantation was 95.89 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> at the 5-year-old,122.12 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> at the 8-year-old and 130.75 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> at the and the order of whose carbon stock could be ranked as follow:the soil>the trees>the litter.Carbon stock of <i>Alnus</i> 14-year-old.Carbon storage in forestlands soil layer (0~60 cm) accounted for more than 59.42% of carbon storage in the whole ecosystem,the ratio of carbon storage of aboveground to that of underground deceased as the <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> forest age growth.The annual carbon amount of the 5-year-old,the 8-year-old and the 14-year-old <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> plantation was respectively 6.51,6.26 and 7.82 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> ·a<sup>-1</sup> .Extant carbon storage of <i>Alnus cremastogyne</i> plantation in Hunan province was up to 2.803 4×l0<sup>6</sup> t,accounting for 47.51% of its potential carbon storage.

Carbon Storage Efficiency of Cunninghamia lanceolata Ecological Service Forest in Zhejiang
Zhang Jun;Ge Ying;Jiang Bo;Chang Jie;Yuan Weigao;Zhu Jinru;Qi Lianzhong
2010, 46(6):  22-26.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100604
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The biomass distribution and carbon storage were studied of three age classes of Cunninghamia lanceolata ecological service forest in Zhejiang Province.The tree-layer biomass of C.lanceolata dominant forest was over 47 t·hm-2 before 10 years by high density planting and management.At mid-aged (11-20 a) and mature (21-30 a)stage,however,tree-layer biomass of C.lanceolata dominant forest did not significantly increase,and was lower than the mixed forest containing C.lanceolata at the same age-class.The tree-layer biomass of the mixed forest containing C.lanceolata increased markedly with age,and the mid-aged forest was 147% higher than young forest and mature forest was 28.1% higher than mid-aged forest.Carbon storage could increase by 0.84 t·hm-2 per year to 0.21 t·hm-2 per year if C.lanceolata forest was transformed into a mixed forest.

Construction of Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Library and Expression Pattern of a Few Genes Involved in Rooting of <i>Larix</i> Cuttings
Feng Jian;Qi Liwang;Sun Xiaomei;Zhang Shougong
2010, 46(6):  27-34.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100605
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In order to investigate the expression pattern of genes during rooting of <i>Larix</i> cuttings,two differentially expressed cDNA libraries were constructed by using two <i>Larix</i> clones whose rates of rooting are significantly different.Each 500 clones,stochastically selected from positive and negative library,were sequenced.After sequencing and assembling,we obtained 521 UniEST(272 from positive library and 249 from negative library).The UniEST included the genes related to metabolism,signal pathway,transport,resistance,development and cell structure.The result suggested that these genes might have the function during rooting of <i>Larix</i> cuttings.The representational genes were selected and further detected by using semi-quantitative RT-PCR to understand their expression patterns in roots,stems,leaves and at different stages of rooting of <i>Larix</i> cuttings.The result indicated that hormones played pivotal roles in rooting of <i>Larix</i> cuttings.Besides genes related to hormones,small G protein genes,ATP binding cassette transporters genes and WRCs genes were all involved in the rooting procedure.

Isolation and Expression of the Chloroplast Copper/Zinc Superoxide Dismutase Gene (GbCuZnSOD ) from Ginkgo biloba
Li Linling;Cheng Hua;Xu Feng;Wang Yan;Jiang Dezhi;Cheng Shuiyuan
2010, 46(6):  35-42.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100606
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A full-length cDNA sequence of Ginkgo biloba chloroplast copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase gene(GbCuZnSOD ,FJ555020) was isolated from G.biloba for the first time.The full-length cDNA of GbCuZnSOD was 783 bp,including a 642 bp open reading frame (ORF) which was deduced to encode a 213-amino-acid protein.A predicted molecular weight of the protein was 21.8 ku with pI of 6.82.Three-dimension structure modeling showed that GbCuZnSOD contained 3 helixes and 8 sheets,and had a cylinder motif and three external loops in the enzyme core.Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that GbCuZnSOD shared the same ancestor with other CuZnSODs.Bioinformatic analysis showed that the CuZnSOD contained a chloroplast-targeted transit peptides.Southern analysis showed that the GbCuZnSOD genes was encoded by a small gene family in G.biloba .Northern hybridization analysis showed that GbCuZnSOD expressed in leaves,stems and fruits,with the highest expression in leaves.There was no expression found in roots.The expression of GbCuZnSOD could be induced by ABA and 36 ℃ temperature,but not by osmoticums and low temperature.

Bioinformatic Analysis of CBF1 Transcription Factors from the Plants
Jiang Yao;Chen Qibing
2010, 46(6):  43-50.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100607
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Multiple alignment of amino acid sequences of CRT-binding factor1(CBF1) from 18 different plants was conducted and a phylogenetic tree with these proteins was built.In addition,the characters of the amino acid constitutions,isoelectric point,hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties,secondary structures,tertiary structures and functional domains of these proteins were analyzed with the tools of bioinformatics software.The results showed that nuclear localization signals(NLS) were rich in Argnine(Arg) and Lysine(Lys) residues at N-terminal of CBF1 in 18 different plants,while containing AP2 core domains which bind to DNA and acidic amino acids were located in C-terminal.Molecular evolution was analyzed by cladogram construction of CBF1.Amino acids of CBF1 mainly belonged to aliphatic series.All CBF1s in 18 different plants contained non-polar amino acid Ala,and most of the isoelectric points were acid,the proteins of CBF1 were unstable and hydrophilic.Constructions of α-helixs and random coils in CBF1 were dominant elements from 18 different plants,β-turns and extended strains interspersed over the whole proteins.Subcellular localizations of CBF1 protein were different.A three-dimensional structure test validated that the modeling accorded with the stereochemistry.This study provides basic information for the research of gene structure and biological function,and also provides evidence for the analysis of the function of interaction in different signal pathway and regulating mechanism.

Effects of Exogenous Ca2+ on Growth and Dynamic Distribution of Stable Isotope δ13 C,δ15 N of Populus×euramericana‘Nanlin 895' Cuttings
Wang Lei;Yin Zengfang;You Luxiang;Li Janyin;Yu Mingxiang;Xu Mianfen
2010, 46(6):  51-57.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100608
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In this paper,growth in height,caliper,and biomass,and dynamic changes of the δ13 C and δ15 N value in the vegetative organs of Populus ×euramericana‘Nanlin 895' cuttings were investigated in response to different concentrations of exogenous Ca2+ treatments.The experimental results showed that different concentrations of exogenous Ca2+ were able to promote the plant growth;the height,caliper,and biomass increments were all greater than the control after spraying exogenous Ca2+ ,among which the 200 mg·L-1 Ca2+ concentration exhibited the best effect.Compared with the control,the average of the height,caliper and biomass treated with 200 mg·L-1 Ca2+ increased by 14.82%,18.01%,and 19.7% respectively.The stable isotope,δ13 C and δ15 N,enrichment capacity of the Populus×euramericana ‘Nanlin 895' cuttings were affected by different concentration exogenous Ca2+ to various degrees.With the Ca2+ concentration increased (0,2,20,100,200,300 mg·L-1 ),the δ13 C and δ15 N values of the leaf,stem and root presented a gradual increase at low concentrations,and then slowly declined at high concentration,with the maximum value appeared at the concentration of 200 mg·L-1 Ca2+ .The distribution of δ13 C and δ15 N value in the plant complied with the principle that the “sink” organ was more than the “source” organ.The correlation analysis showed that both the δ13 C and δ15 N values of  “source”  organ had a significantly negative correlation with the height,caliper,and the positive correlation with biomass.The δ13 C,δ15 N value of  “sink”  organ had a significantly positive correlation with the plant height,caliper,and biomass.The δ13 C,δ15 N value dynamic changes of different vegetative organs reflected to a certain extent accumulation and redistribution patterns of the photoassimilates in the “source” and “sink” organs of Populus ×euramericana ‘Nanlin 895' cuttings in response to exogenous Ca2+ concentration.

Influences of Soil Flooding on Ultrastructure and Photosynthetic Capacity of Leaves of One-year Old Seedlings of Two Poplar Clones
Du Kebing;Xu Lin;Tu Bingkun;Shen Baoxian
2010, 46(6):  58-64.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100609
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Flood-tolerant Populus deltoides cv.Lux ex I-69/55 and flood-susceptible Populus simonii were adopted as materials in the present study to investigate the influences of soil flooding on ultrastructure and photosynthetic capacity of leaves.Results showed that flooding affected ultrastructure and photosynthetic capacity of leaves adversely,especially with the aggravation and prolonging of flooding treatment.After eight-day flooding,slight decrease of netphotosynthetic rate (Pn),potential efficiency of primary conversion of light energy of PSⅡ (PnFv/Fm),and chlorophyll content occurred in both clones,as well as some destructions in ultrastructure of leaves,including starch grain disappeared sharply,osmophore slowly increased,swelled thylakoid and slightly distorted grana layers.Significant differences were observed between the two clones at day 15,instead of day eight.High PnFv/Fm and chlorophyll content were observed in P.deltoides cv.Lux ex I-69/55 due to its relatively intact ultrastructure of leaves.Whereas,serious decline in PnFv/Fm and chlorophyll content occurred in P.simonii,accompanied with severe destructions in ultrastructure of leaves,including occurrences of plasmolysis,chloroplast swelled and its envelope disappeared,swelled thylakoid,grana layers distorted and decomposed,as well as decreased mitochondria cristaes and exuded inclusion.Mitochondria was more flood-tolerant than chloroplast.Destruction of ultrastructure of leaves,especially of photosynthetic organs,which was identical to declines of Pn,Fv/Fm and chlorophyll content,were important reasons in decline of photosynthetic capacity.Flood tolerance of ultrastructure differed significantly in different poplar clones.Under flooding,flood-tolerant poplar clones had more stable ultrastructure of leaves than intolerant ones,including slighter and slower destruction.Stability of ultrastructure of leaves was positively related to flood-tolerance,which could be adopted as a cytology reference to identify flood tolerance of poplar clones.

Spatial Distribution of Anion Level in Forests and Wetland in Qingdao
Yan Xiujing
2010, 46(6):  65-70.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100610
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The anion released by the forest and wetland has important ecological functions and is a significant evaluation index.The article focused on several eco-factors which have notable influence on the anion thickness.A qualitative,quantitative and visual study on the forest and wetland in Qingdao was for the first time conducted in large scale to guide the construction and ecological benefit assessment of anion bathing Forests.The study was based on the survey data,block plan and ALOS image,combining with the spatial statistics and 3S technique.The main results were as following:1) The longest influence external distance is 10 m at the early growth stage of vegetation and the longest influence external distance is 40 m at the middle growth stage of vegetation.2) At the early growth stage,the capacity of anion release from forests and wetlands varied as following,mixed forest>coniferous forest>broadleaf forest>wetlands>economic forest.At the middle growth stage,the released capacity of anion was:economic forest>wetlands>mixed forest>broadleaf forest>coniferous forest.3) The first and second grade scattered in the urban,Jiaozhou and Laoshan regions of the city at the early growth period.At that time,the mean concentration of anion was 1 651 unit·cm<sup>-3</sup> ,average humidity 35.38% RH,mean temperature 16.05 ℃.The covered area was 77.01 km<sup>2</sup> ,among which forests took 40.85 km<sup>2</sup> ,wetland area was 0.37 km<sup>2</sup> ,and forest coverage was 53%.The first and second grade scattered in the south Laixi,Jimo,Chengyang,urban,Jiaozhou gulf,Laoshan Pingdu and Jiaonan region of the city at the middle growth stage.Just as above,mean concentration of anion was 3 550 unit·cm<sup>-3</sup> ,average humidity 67.43% RH,mean temperature 26.77℃.The area covered 5 687.58 km<sup>2</sup> ,with forest 2 380.25 km<sup>2</sup> ,wetland 472.07 km<sup>2</sup> .The forest with the mean concentration of anion more than 3 550 unit·cm<sup>-3</sup> accounted for 53% of land area of the Qingdao city,the forest coverage was 42%,the concentration of anion at middle growth period was 4 times of that at early stage.4) This study confirmed the ecological value of economic forest.

Comparison among Different Designs of Two-Stage Adaptive Cluster Sampling in Vegetation Survey in Desert Edge
Zhu Guangyu;Lei Yuancai
2010, 46(6):  71-77.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100611
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Two-stage ACS (adaptive cluster sampling) is an extended method of ACS,and it can to a certain degree control the final sample size of ACS.The procedure and principle of two-stage ACS are presented in this paper.Based on the survey data of <i>Hedysarum scoparium</i> in the western China,the simulation results of four different two-stage adaptive cluster samplings are compared and analyzed.It is showed that the Two-stage ACS,that is based on the modified Horvitz-Thompson estimator,is most effective,in which the clusters are not allowed to overlap primary unit.

Quantitative Analysis of Forest Stand Spatial Structure Based on Voronoi Diagram & Delaunay Triangulated Network
Zhao Chunyan;Li Jiping;Li Jianjun
2010, 46(6):  78-84.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100612
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Forest stand spatial structure reflects structure associated with trees spatial position,which is generally described by mingling,neighborhood comparison and neighborhood pattern.The most important thing for calculating the three spatial structure indexes is determining the target's nearest neighbor trees and the number of them.Voronoi diagram is one of partition patterns for spatial.This article regards individual tree as a planar point and builds Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulated network based on Voronoi diagram's nearest and adjacent characteristics,which have the following features:the number of nearest neighbor trees equals the number of corresponding polygon edges in Voronoi diagrams,the distance between the target trees and the nearest neighbor trees equals the length of corresponding polygon edges in Delaunay triangulated network,and the angle between any two nearest neighbor trees equals the angle between two corresponding edges in Delaunay triangulated network.With testing in the plot in Mangrove Nation Natural Reserve at Zhanjiang,this article comparative analysises the outcomes of calculating the spatial structure indexes based on Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulated network and the outcomes of traditional algorithms which the number of the nearest neighbor trees is 4.The result shows:the outcomes have significantly correlation and agreement between the two when calculating mingling and neighborhood comparison,but the outcomes exist remarkably difference when calculating neighborhood pattern.Because selection is in all direction when build Voronoi diagram to determine the nearest neighbor trees,the neighborhood pattern values are less than the values of traditional algorithms,but Delaunay triangulated network structures reflect well the distribution pattern of individual on horizontal ground,and also the research of forest stand spatial structure,which based on Voronoi diagram and Delaunay triangulated network,do not need measure distance and calculate angles between the target trees and the nearest neighbor trees.

Illustration of Bamboo standard System in China
Hou Xinyi;Jiang Zehui;Ren Haiqing
2010, 46(6):  85-92.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100613
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China has plenty of bamboo resources and a higher researching level on bamboo science.However,until now China has not shaped its bamboo standard system.This paper illustrates the importance and meaning to create such a system,analyze the present state of bamboo standardization both in China and foreign country,sum up the problems of present bamboo standards which contain not balance distribution,narrow field,old contents and non-consistent in some standards.The paper also put forward principle and methods for China's bamboo standard system.Based on these,a preliminary bamboo stand ard system for China which contain six sub-systems has been established,that are fundamental standard sub-system,ecological and cultivatable standard sub-system,processing and using standard sub-system,defending standard sub-system,healthy standard sub-system and maching equipments standard sub-system.Some standards lists are given.

Predatory Effect of <i>Taraka hamada</i> on <i>Astegopteryx bambusifoliae</i>
Ding Yuzhou;Xu Mingxiu;Liu Xiaolin;Li Xingtian;Zou Yunding;Zhang Longwa
2010, 46(6):  93-96.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100614
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<i>Taraka hamada</i> Druce,an aphidophagous lycaenid butterfly,is a dominant natural enemy,has a big population and strong predacious ability of aphides and plays an important role in controlling aphides in bamboo forests.The daily consumptions of 1<sup>st</sup> ,2<sup>nd</sup> and 3<sup>rd</sup> instar larvae of <i>T.hamada</i> on aphids were 93.60,161.80 and 266.20,respectively.The diurnal predatory rates of <i>T.hamada</i> on aphids following the below sequence,morning< afternoon< night,and the biggest predatory rate appeard in the period of between 21:30 and 1:30.The optimum temperature range was 25-30℃.The highest consumption of <i>T.hamada</i> on aphids took place at 30 ℃,and the predatory rate declined when temperature roise to 35 ℃.Spatial-heterogeneity and intraspecies interruption can affect the predatory behavior of <i>T.hamada.</i> With the increase of spatial-heterogenicity and intraspecies interruption,the consumption of <i>T.hamada</i> on aphids showed a decline.

A Comparison among the Ultrastructures and Characteristics of Wing Scales of the Fall Webworm and Other 5 Tiger Moth Species (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae)
Zeng Jinyao;Liu Bingwan;Zheng Yongmei;Jiang Lei
2010, 46(6):  97-101.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100615
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The ultrastructures and characteristics of forewing scales in the fall webworm <i>Hyphantria cunea,Nyctemera adversata</i>,<i>Spilarctia subcarnea</i>,<i>Epatolmis caesarea</i>,<i>Spilosoma album</i> and <i>Spilarctia casigneta</i> was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The lengths and widths of scales and the distances between ridges on scales were compared.The results showed that the cover scales and ground scales of these 6 species moths all belonged to the hollow scale and the type of scale covering belonged to type-2 bilayer scale covering.<i>Spilarctia subcarnea</i> had the largest cover scales and ground scales,<i>Spilosoma album</i> had the shortest cover scales and <i>Nyctemera adversata</i> had the shortest ground scales;<i>Hyphantria cunea</i> had the narrowest cover and ground scales.Cover scales of <i>Hyphantria cunea</i> had the largest distance between ridges;the smallest distance between ridges both on cover and ground scales was in <i>Epatolmis caesarea</i>;the smallest between ridges in the ground scales is in <i>Spilarctia casigneta</i>.There were significant differences in the scales' characteristics and distance between ridges among 6 moth species according to one-way ANOVA.The comparison among the ultrastructure and characteristics of wing scales in the fall webworm and other 5 moth species provided a reliable basis for the research on relationship between moths and bats,also for prevention and control of the fall webworm,although they could not be used alone for species identification.

Wintering Habitat Selection by Brown-Eared Pheasant (Crossoptilon mantchuricum) in Huanglong Mountains Nature Reserve,Shaanxi Province,China
Li Hongqun;Lian Zhenmin;Chen Cungen
2010, 46(6):  102-106.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100616
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The wintering habitat selection of brown-eared pheasant(Crossoptilon mantchuricum ) was investigated from November,2006 to January 2007.Line transects of systematic sampling was used to characterize several environmental variables of the whole study area in Huanglong Mountains(109°38′—110°12′E,35°28′—36°02′N)of Shaanxi Province.The distance between any two nearest transects was 200m and grids (200 m×200 m) were obtained every 200m along transects.The grids with presence of the brown eared-pheasant were defined as detected grids (n=53),the grids with absence of the brown-eared pbeasant as undetected ones (n=46).Distance to nearest water,nearest unpaved road,nearest village and nearest edge of woods,altitude,slope degree,cosine of slope aspect,cover of trees,cover and average height of shrub all showed significant differences between detected and undetected grids.Univariate analysis of logistic regression was derived from the above variable and the variables with probability less than 0.30 were retained,then by spearman correlation we excluded the variables of distance to nearest water,nearest unpaved road and nearest village.Forward elimination stepwise logistic regression was conducted with the remained variables as independent variables.Finally,regression equation with the lowest AICC value was regarded as the optimal model.The model could be formally expressed as: π(x)=eg(x) /(1+eg(x) ),g(x)=22.107-0.004×distance to nearest edge of woods+13.623×cover of trees-0.021×altitude.The model suggested that wintering habitat selection of brown eared-pheasant was negatively related to distance to nearest edge of woods and altitude,positively related to cover of trees.The model could acurately predict the occurrence of wintering habitat of brown-eared pheasant.

Design of Movable Skyline Hoisting Cableway Used in Unusually Large Bridge
Zhou Xinnian;Wu Zhilong;Guan Yinsheng;Zhang Zhengxiong;Zheng Lifeng;Chen Yuyun;Feng Jianxiang
2010, 46(6):  107-112.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100617
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As one of the most convenient and economical tools of transportation and crane,ropeway begin to use in a variety of building and construction.According to the characteristic and requirements of cableway design,the movable skyline hoisting cableway in Quansan Highway Xia'an Unusually Bridge was creatively designed with the principle of advanced technology,reasonable economy,safety and appliance,which included the general arrangement of cableways,calculation of skyline and workline,checking computation of the support and the anchorage,productivity calculation.Under the specific topography condition,the effective and reasonable layout of hoisting cableway and the main technical parameter properly were chosed,and the calculation was checked.The result showed that the hoisting cableway was safety and appliance in the construction of bridge,and it was suitable in the request of hoisting working and high strength workload.

Location of Timber Logistics Centers Based on ArcGIS
Qiu Rongzu;Lin Yahui;Zhong Cong er
2010, 46(6):  113-117.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100618
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In this paper mathematics models for timber logistics centers location were set up and genetics algorithms were applied to solve the problem.Baseed on the models and algorithms,an integrated development on the application system of centers location was carried out where ArcGIS was adopted as its development platform and VB as its programming language.Based on the study object Yong'an Forestry Group Co.,Ltd,a timber logistics spatial database was built on which a primary location decision was practiced through the application system.

Research Advances and Application Prospects of Botanical Acaricides
Wang Younian
2010, 46(6):  118-127.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100619
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Advances in the study of botanical acaricides derived from over 70 plants are reviewed.The development and use of botanical acaricides were summarized .The problems in development and research of botanical acaricides were indetailed analyzed.The author also pointed out that the main directions of research on the botanical acaricides are isolating and determining the molecular structures of the active components and clarifying the function mechanism of the active components.Some research methods were proposed and a great prospect to exploit plant resources to develop botanical acaricides were pointed out.

Species Diversity of Plant Community in Duozhijian Region of Dabieshan Mountain Anhui Province
Wu Ganlin;Wang Zhigao;Duan Renyan;Zhang Zhongxin;Shen Sanbao
2010, 46(6):  128-132.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100620
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A survey on vegetation diversity was conducted in 25 plots in Duozhijian region of Dabieshan Mountain. The collected data were analyzed with TWINSPAN software, and nine community types were categorized out of the 25 plots. Shannon index did not fit to vegetation diversity in this area. Simpson index and Pielou eveness were the highest in arbor layer and the lowest in herb layer. Species richness was higher in broad-leaved forests than coniferous forests. The results also demonstrated the species composition and distribution of shrub and herb layers were affected by arbor layer.

Comparison of Pollen Morphology of Tree Peony Cultivar Groups
Yang Qiusheng;Wan Huimin;Sun Junya;Gong Shuangjun
2010, 46(6):  133-137.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100621
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Pollen morphologies of 36 different cultivated Tree Peony cultivars were observed under LM and SEM. Results showed: the pollen existed in the form of simple grain; with tricolporate and reticulate exine sculpture. However,pollen morphologies among different cultivar groups were different. The pollen morphologies of Japanese cultivars and the central plains cultivars were greatly different from that of the northwest cultivars,while the difference between Japanese cultivars and central plains cultivars was not obvious. Cluster analysis further testified that the genetic relationship between the central plains cultivars and Japanese cultivars was closer.

Bud Micropropagation and Plantlet-transplanting Techniques for Breeding Cold-resistant strain of <i>Eucalyptus dunnii</i>
Song Jianying
2010, 46(6):  138-145.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100622
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This study used buds of <i>Eucalyptus dunnii, </i>that survived after the freezing disaster in the northern Fujian Province, as explants and employed micropropagation methods (shoot inducement, proliferation, rooting and plantlet hardening and so on) to breed coldresistant strain. An orthogonal experiment was used to screen the best media for each propagation stage. The results showed that: 1) Bud inducement was initiated on a MS medium containing 1.0 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> KT, 0. 05 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> NAA. The inducement rate of valid buds reached to 76%. 2) The shoots were subcultured and multiplied on an improved MS medium containing 0.8 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> KT, 0.1 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> NAA and 10 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> cysteine. The two media were modified by adding 30 g·L <sup>-1</sup> sucrose and adjusted to pH5.8. 3) Rooting medium was the half strength of MS medium supplied with 1.0~1.5 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> ABT and 0.01 mg·L <sup>-1</sup> IBA, with which the rooting rate was 84% in a two-step rooting method. This medium was modified by adding 20 g·L <sup>-1</sup> sucrose and adjusted to pH5.8. 4) Transplanting medium was a mixture of 20% bark, 30% husk, 40% sawdust, 28% peat moss and 2% composite fertilizers, and was used for transplanting the plantlets. The survival rate of the plantlets was 100% after transplantation, and 18% higher than that in the natural soil. Growth in height of the transplanted seedlings in the medium was 23.9 cm in 4 month and was 9.9 cm higher than that in the natural soil. The result showed that transplant survival rate of <i>E. dunnii</i> plantlets was much improved and seedlings grew more healthily and strongly in the light matrix.

Analysis about Change of Waterholding Characteristic of Litter Layer after Logging Reform in Lowquality Forest Stands of Lesser Khingan Range
Guo Hui;Dong Xibin;Meng Kuanhong;Fan Yuting
2010, 46(6):  146-153.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100623
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Litter amount and the water-holding characteristic of litter layers were analyzed after logging in low-quality forests in Lesser Khingan Range with different logging styles. The results showed that: the litter amount and the maximum water-holding capacity of the nondecomposed litter were greater than the semi-decomposed litter in the horizontal clear-cutting zone. At 10th mether of band width, the litter amount was the largest, but there nosignificant difference in the maximum water holding capacity. The litter amount and the maximum water-holding capacity of the non-decomposed litter were greater than the semi-decomposed litter in the vertical clear-cutting zone, but there was no significant difference in the litter amount and the maximum water-holding capacity between different band widths. The litter amount and the maximum water-holding capacity was large in the light selective-cutting zone. The total amount of litter was 20.68,10.73,13.34,1.49 t·hm<sup>-2</sup> in the horizontal clear-cutting zone, the vertical clear-cutting zone, the selective -cutting zone and the check zone, and the maximum water-holding capacity was 45.25,81.68,29.58,75.56 t·hm<sup>-2</sup>. The order of the total litter amount was: the check zone>the horizontal zone>the selective-cutting zone>the vertical zone, the nondecomposed litter: the horizontal zone>the check zone>the selective-cutting zone>the vertical zone, the semi-decomposed litter: the check zone>the selective-cutting zone>the horizontal zone>the vertical zone; The order of the maximum water-holding capacity was: the vertical zone>the check zone>the horizontal zone>the selective-cutting zone, the nondecomposed litter: the vertical zone>the check zone>the horizontal zone>the selective-cutting zone, the semi-decomposed litter: the check zone >the vertical zone>the horizontal zone>the selective-cutting zone. As time went on water-holding capacity of litter increased, however water absorption speed reduced. In summery Logging operations had a greater disturbance on the litter water-holding properties,but the vertical clearf-cutting and the low cutting intensity were able to effectively reduce the impact of logging in terms of hydrological function of litter.

Vegetation Change and the Relationship with Climate Factors in Heilongjiang Province from 1981 to 2003
Liu Wenbin;Cai Tijiu;Ju Cunyong;Yao Yuefeng
2010, 46(6):  154-160.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100624
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We analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of vegetation, climate factors and their correlations using GIMMS NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) dataset and monthly temperature, precipitation data from 67 standard meteorological observatories across Heilongjiang province during the period from 1981 to 2003. Results showed that vegetation became slightly flourishing in this region over 23 years, but the change was not a significant. The annual NDVI had a positive correlation with temperature, but a significant negative correlation with precipitation. The precipitation was the dominant factor affecting the vegetation dynamics in Heilongjiang Province. In most parts of Western and Northern Heilongjiang, vegetation tend to increasing, and there was a positive correlation with temperature, but a negative correlation with precipitation. In most parts of Eastern and Central, vegetation activities had a slightly weaken and the correlations with temperature and precipitation were obviously heterogeneous with majority positive. By time lag correlation analysis, we found that vegetation showed a better correlation with the cumulative precipitation of current month and last two months, but a better correlation with current monthly temperature.

Diurnal Variation of Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the leaves of Cinnamomum camphora
Luo Yingli;Yan Wende;;Tian Dalun;;Liang Xiaocui;;Peng Gang
2010, 46(6):  161-165.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100625
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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)are a kind of persistent toxic organic pollutants which widely exist in environment. In this study, the diurnal variation of PAHs concentrations in leaves of Cinnamomum camphora was analyzed. The result showed that the concentrations of the total PAHs in the leaves in the daytime were much lower than those at night, and the result was well consistent with the diurnal variation of PAHs in the atmosphere deposition. 3-and 4-rings PAHs compounds were main components of the tested 16 PAHs and the concentrations formed around 80% of the total PAHs. However, the low-rings PAHs and high-rings PAHs accounted for respectively only approximate 10.40% and 9.81% of the total PAHs. PHE was a main component of ΣPAHs. The ratio of molecule indicators suggested that the PAHs in the leaves of C. camphora were originated from both petroleum and pyrolytic.

Morphological Differences of <i>Oligonychus ununguis</i> Populations from <i>Castanea mollissima </i> and <i>Cunninghamia lanceolata</i>
Yin Shuyan;Xu Changqing;Cui Xiaoping;Wu Ailian;Sun Xugen
2010, 46(6):  166-170.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100626
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The morphological variations of different host populations of <i>Oligonychus ununguis</i> were compared with an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that there existed differences in aedeagus of male adults, the epidermis of genital flap and its anterior area of female adults, the sensillum of palpal tarsus, the seta and empodium of legs of both males and females between <i>Castanea mollissima</i> population and <i>Cunninghamia lanceolata</i> population. Male aedeagus of the two populations were all hooked, but the hook of individuals from chestnut population was long and slender, tapering gradually from the curved position to the terminal, while that from fir population was shorter and finger-like, tapering sharply. The terminal sensillum of palpal tarsus of male adults from chestnut population was conical, while that of fir population was terete. Empodium I of the two populations were all claw-like, but that of chestnut population with slightly blunt terminal was thick and slightly curved, while that of fir population with pointed terminal was slender and strongly curved.

Relationship Between Canker Outbreak and Individual Crown Structure of Populus bolleana Forest in Qingtongxia
Fan Junfeng;Huang Fenglong;;Jiao Yijie;Liang Jun
2010, 46(6):  171-175.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100627
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Ten crown structure indexes were measured and investigating poplar canker disease state was investigated on all the individuals in a poplar plantation. Based on the collected data relationships of crown structure with the disease state of the poplar individuals was analyzed. The results showed that height under branch (H ub),crown width (W),first-order branch angle (A fb),first-order branch diameter (D fb),percentage of crown length with height(CL/H),crown shape ratio (CSR),leaf area index (LAI),total leaf area (TLA) and crown surface area (CSA) of non-diseased plants were larger than diseased plants,while,canopy layer density (CLD)of non-diseased plants was smaller than diseased plants. Poplar canker severity(CS) was very significantly negatively correlated with W,H ub,CL/H ,CSR and CSA and very significantly positively correlated with CLD; The order of the direct effect on CS was CLD>A fb>W>CSR>D fb>CL/H >TLA>CSA>H ub>LAI. The direct effect of TLA,CSA,H ub,LAI on CS was negative,restrained poplar canker from developing ,and the direct inhibition of LAI was the largest. Lastly,the integrated effect of D fb,CL/H ,A fb,CSR,W ,LAI on CS was negative. In these six crown structure indexes,LAI,having the largest negative decisive effect,can be regarded as primary limiting factor,and the second was W.

Quantitatively Determining of Hole-Defects in Korean Pine Lumber Based on Modal Analysis and BP Neural Network
Wang Lihai;Xu Huadong;Xing Tao;Ni Songyuan
2010, 46(6):  176-181.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100628
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Inner defects of timber caused a great loss of wood resources, especially valuable wood resources. Therefore, it was great significant to quantitatively detect wood defects for high-efficient utilization of wood resources. In this paper, the modal experiment was carried out, using AD-3651-02 FFT analyzer and other necessary instruments, under the normal circumstances in the laboratory. And the first three orders of intrinsic frequency of 15 Korean Pine specimens with different positions or diameters of hole-defects were obtained. After that, two parameters <i>ζ</i> <sub>1</sub>and <i>ζ</i> <sub>2</sub> were constructed with the aid of intrinsic frequency. Here parameter <i>ζ</i> <sub>1</sub> was sensitive to hole-defect's position and parameter <i>ζ</i> <sub>2</sub> was sensitive to its size. And then <i>ζ</i> <sub>1</sub> and <i>ζ</i> <sub>2</sub> were introduced as input vectors of BP neural network, so the location network and the quantitative recognition network were constructed to realize training and testing of specimens data. The results showed that whether Korean Pine specimens with hole-defects or not could be diagnosed directly by variation of intrinsic frequency. At the same time, the positions and sizes of hole-defects could be recognized effectively by using the location network and the quantitative recognition network.

A New Variety <i>Taxodium mucronatum</i>×<i>Cryptomeria fortunei</i>
Zhu Jianhua;Han Yujie;Zhu Weijie
2010, 46(6):  182-182.  doi:10.11707/j.1001-7488.20100629
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<i>Taxodium mucronatum</i>×<i>Cryptomeria fortunei</i> is a hybrid tree species with excellent characteristics,such as fast-growing,wind resistance,salt-alkali tolerance,waterlogging tolerance,landscape effects and improving air quality.It adapted well to the seashore saline land;low-lying swamp land,river banks,gardening,landscaping,plant community making-green and coastal shelterbelt building,highly promotional value.