• 论文与研究报告 •

### 针阔混交林不同演替阶段表层土壤理化性质与优势林木生长的相关性

1. 东北林业大学工程技术学院 哈尔滨 150040
• 收稿日期:2015-04-16 修回日期:2016-03-29 出版日期:2016-05-25 发布日期:2016-06-01
• 通讯作者: 吴金卓
• 基金资助:

中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2572015CA01);国家"十二五"科技支撑计划专题(2012BAC01B03-3);国家自然科学基金项目(31400539)。

### Correlation between the Growth of Dominant Trees and Surface Soil Physiochemical Properties of Conifer and Broad-Leaved Mixed Forest at Different Succession Stages

Lin Wenshu, Mu Dan, Wang Liping, Shao Lijun, Wu Jinzhuo

1. College of Engineering & Technology, Northeast Forestry University Harbin 150040
• Received:2015-04-16 Revised:2016-03-29 Online:2016-05-25 Published:2016-06-01

[目的] 旨在分析不同演替阶段针阔混交林土壤表层理化性质与优势树木生长特性之间的关系, 以期为探索不同林分的生长规律及森林可持续经营提供依据。[方法] 以吉林省蛟河市林业实验区管理局林场的不同演替阶段针阔混交林样地(中龄林、近熟林、成熟林、老龄林)为对象,采用对比方法和主成分分析方法,分析表层土壤理化性质、优势木生长特征及二者间的关系。[结果] 随着针阔混交林演替的进行,林分中优势木的平均胸径呈增加趋势,优势木的平均树高变化不大,红松优势木数量逐渐增加,而胡桃楸优势木数量逐渐减少,春榆、大果榆等优势木随演替进行逐渐退出主林层; 从中龄林到成熟林,土壤密度变化不显著,老龄林土壤密度最小; 随着演替进行,非毛管孔隙度逐渐减小,毛管孔隙度逐渐增大,总孔隙度变化并不明显; 在4个演替阶段中,老龄林土壤毛管持水量与最大持水量均最大,比中龄林分别增加12.98%和27.94%; 在表层土壤化学性质方面,0~20 cm土层pH值表现为成熟林最大,近熟林最小,老龄林介于成熟林和中龄林之间; 土壤有机质含量表现为近熟林最高,成熟林最低; 土壤中全氮、水解氮和有效磷含量均表现为老龄林最高,土壤中全磷、全钾和速效钾含量均表现为近熟林最高; 不同演替阶段优势木的平均树高和平均胸径均与土壤有机质、全磷、全钾、有效磷和速效钾含量正相关; 不同演替阶段下优势木的平均树高与土壤密度、非毛管孔隙度和pH值负相关,与有机质、全氮和全钾含量显著正相关; 优势木的平均胸径与土壤密度和全磷含量正相关,与最大持水量和水解氮含量负相关; 土壤最大持水量、土壤密度、全磷和水解氮含量对优势木的径生长过程有较大的影响。[结论] 毛管孔隙度、速效钾和全磷含量是影响不同演替阶段土壤质量的主要因子;经过不同演替阶段,表层土壤理化性质质量的综合得分表现为中龄林 < 成熟林 < 近熟林 < 老龄林;随着演替进行,针阔混交林的表层土壤理化性质基本呈现质量提高趋势,到老龄林时期达到最佳。本研究得到的不同演替阶段针阔混交林林木生长与表层土壤理化性质特征的相关性为进一步实现该地区森林可持续经营提供了科学依据。

Abstract:

[Objective] This study aims to analyze the relationship between surface soil physiochemical properties and the growth of dominant trees for mixed forest of conifer and broad-leaved species at different succession stages in order to explore the growth patterns of different stands and provide basis for sustainable forest management. [Method] The mixed forest conifers and broad-leaved trees at different succession stages (middle-aged forest, near-mature forest, mature forest, and old growth forest) in Jiaohe Management Bureau of Forestry Experimental Area, Jilin Province were studied. The methods of comparison and principal component analysis were used to analyze physical and chemical properties of the surface soil, the growth of dominant trees, and the relationship between them. [Result] with the succession of forest, the average diameter at breast height (DBH) of the dominant tree species increased, the average tree height varied slightly, the regeneration of Pinus koraiensis tended to be stable, and the number of Juglans mandshurica, Ulmus davidiana var.japonica, and U.macrocarpa gradually decreased in the upper overstory. With respect to the soil physical properties, the soil density was not significantly different among middle-aged forest, near-mature forest and mature forest and it reached the minimum at the stage of old-growth forest. With the succession of forest, the non-capillary porosity gradually decreased and capillary porosity gradually increased, as a result the variation of the total porosity was not significant. Among the four successional stages, the capillary water holding capacity and maximum water holding capacity at the stage of old-growth forest were the largest, which were 12.98% and 27.94% higher than middle-aged forest. With respect to the chemical properties of surface soil, the pH value of the soil layer at 0-20 cm of mature forest was the largest and that of near-mature forest was the smallest. The pH value of old-growth forest was between mature forest and middle-aged forest. The organic matter content of near-mature forest was the highest and that of mature forest was the lowest. In the old-growth forest, the total nitrogen, hydrolysable nitrogen, and available phosphorus were the highest among the four stage forests. The total phosphorus, total potassium, and available potassium in the near-mature forest were the highest. The mean tree height and mean DBH of the dominant tree species at different successional stages were all positively correlated with organic matter content, total phosphorus, total potassium, available phosphorus, and available potassium (mean tree height: r=0.980, 0.447, 0.921, 0.341, 0.546; mean DBH: r=0.003, 0.803, 0.083, 0.252, 0.448). The mean tree height of the dominant tree species was also negatively correlated with soil density, non-capillary porosity and pH value (r=-0.742, -0.358, -0.416), and significantly positively related to organic matter content, total nitrogen, and total potassium (r=0.980, 0.910, 0.921). The mean DBH of the dominant tree species was also positively correlated with soil density and total phosphorus (r=0.780, 0.803) and negatively correlated with maximum water holding capacity, and hydrolysable nitrogen (r=-0.562, -0.619). The maximum soil water holding capacity, soil density, hydrolysable nitrogen, and total phosphorus had great impacts on the diameter growth of the dominant tree species. [Conclusion] Capillary porosity, total phosphorus, and available potassium were the main factors affecting surface soil quality at different forest successional stages. The order of the comprehensive score of physical-chemical properties of surface soil at different forest succession stages was as follows: middle-aged forest